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PyNet Labs- Network Automation Specialists

Networking Interview Questions and Answers

Author : Pankaj Kumar
Last Modified: December 22, 2023 
Top Networking Interview Questions and Answers Featured Image

Introduction

Nowadays, the Internet provides an easy way for candidates to prepare for interviews by getting answers to various queries. In the past, individuals had to go through all relevant books and materials to prepare for an interview. Currently, there is an abundance of easily accessible collections of interview questions with answers. Therefore, the process of preparing for an interview has become easier nowadays. We have handpicked the most frequently asked networking interview questions and answers for your easy understanding.

About Networking

Networking is defined as two or more devices that are connected to each other via a transmission media. A network has the potential to be built with just a handful of devices limited within a single room or scaled up to cover millions of devices spread throughout the globe. In general, networks serve as a means of setting up connectivity among nodes, which may consist of a collection of devices or computers.

This guide, networking interview questions and answers, can prove to be a valuable resource for individuals interviewing for positions at the beginner or advanced levels. It can be helpful in enhancing one’s knowledge and achieving success in the interview. Let’s get started!

Basic Networking Interview Questions and Answers

Here are the top most asked networking interview questions for freshers.

Q1 – What are the different types of networks?

Mainly there are four types of networks. These are:

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN)

The Personal Area Network (PAN) is considered to be the fundamental form of computer networking. This network is limited to an individual user, meaning that the exchange of information among computer devices is limited only to the user’s personal workspace.

The PAN technology allows communication between devices within a range of 1 to 100 meters from the user. The transmission speed is relatively high, and its maintenance is simple and cost-effective.

2. Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN is a type of computer network that connects devices within a limited geographic area, such as a home, office, or school. LANs allow users to share resources, such as files, printers, and internet access, among the connected devices. One of the basic examples of Local Area Network (LAN) is a printer connected to a computer.

The maximum range of the system is 1-10 kilometers, and its transmission speed is significantly high.

3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network type that covers the network connection of an entire city or connection of a small area. The area covered by the network is connected using a wired network, like data cables.

This network mainly uses FDDI, CDDI, and ATM as the technology, ranging from 5km to 50km. Its transmission speed is average. It isn’t easy to maintain, and it comes with a high cost.

4. Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN is a network that connects devices over a large geographical area, such as different cities or countries. WANs typically use public or leased telecommunication lines to transmit data. Examples of WANs are the Internet, corporate networks, and satellite networks. In most cases, the connection is established through wireless means and relies on radio towers for transmission.

WAN is a collection of Local Area Networks (LANs) that are connected with each other over a distance above 50 kilometers.

Q2 – What is Subnet?

A subnet is a logical subdivision of an IP network. It allows a single network to be divided into smaller segments, each with its own range of IP addresses and network settings. It can improve network performance, security, and scalability.

Q3 – What is DNS?

DNS is known as the phonebook that helps in translating the domain into a computer-readable IP address. DNS allows users to access websites without having to memorize long strings of numbers.

For example, instead of typing 104.26.10.228, you can type pynetlabs.com, and DNS will find your corresponding IP address.

Q4 – What are clients and servers in a network?

The client is the component responsible for initiating communication and requesting a network service, such as retrieving a web page, transferring a file, or transmitting an email.

The server is the component responsible for responding to client requests and delivering the requested service, such as transmitting a webpage, file, or email.

Computer application uses the client-server model.

Q5 – What is a MAC address?

The Media Access Control (MAC) address holds significant importance in computer networking, similar to that of an IP address. It is also known as a physical, hardware, or burned-in address.

It is a 12-digit hexadecimal number divided into six octets. The first three octets indicate the organization that issued the address, and the last three identify the specific device.

MAC addresses direct data packets to the correct destination on a local network.

Q6 – What are Nodes and Links?

Two or more computers form a network when some wire or fiber optics physically links them. In this configuration, the computers are referred to as nodes, and the link is the actual medium of communication, i.e., the physical medium.

Q7 – What is VPN?

VPN stands for Virtual private network.

  • It is considered VIRTUAL because it establishes a digital pathway, without needing a physical cable, between the user’s device and the VPN server.
  • It is considered PRIVATE due to its ability to encrypt user data and conceal their Internet Protocol (IP) address.
  • It is considered a NETWORK due to its ability to connect various computing devices, namely the user’s device and the VPN server.

Virtual Private Networks simplify the transmission of all network traffic to a virtual network, thus allowing users to access local network resources remotely and bypass Internet censorship. The majority of operating systems have built-in VPN support.

VPNs were initially designed to connect separate corporate networks over the internet securely or to provide remote access to a company’s network.

Q8 – What is a firewall and how does it work?

Firewalls are a kind of network security technique used to restrict unauthorized access to the network. A device or program that is capable of filtering both incoming and outgoing data within a private network, applying a predefined set of regulations to identify and prevent cyber threats. They serve as an essential element of network security.

The majority of operating systems are equipped with a rudimentary integrated firewall. However, the utilization of a firewall application from a third-party source offers enhanced protection measures.

Working: Firewalls are used to monitor and control the flow of network traffic. It evaluates and determines what traffic to allow or restrict on a specific set of regulations. The firewall can be understood as a guard placed at the entry of a computer system, carefully allowing entry only to authorized sources or IP addresses within the network.

The regulations are derived from various factors as specified by the packet data, such as their origin, destination, and other relevant attributes. In order to prevent cyberattacks, traffic originating from suspicious sources is blocked.

Q9 – What is the difference between Hub, Switch, and Router?

Here is a table explaining the difference between Hub, Switch, and Router

DeviceLayer (OSI Model)FunctionExample
HUBIt works on Layer 1 i.e., Physical LayerConnects multiple devices on a single network and broadcasts data to all ports.A hub can be used to connect four computers in a small office network.
SwitchIt works on Layer 2 i.e., Data Link LayerConnects multiple devices on one or more networks and forwards data to the destination port based on MAC address.A switch can be used to create VLANs and reduce broadcast traffic.
RouterIt works on Layer 3 i.e., Network LayerConnects two or more networks and routes data based on IP address.A router can be used to connect a home network to the internet and provide firewall protection.

Q10 – What is Bandwidth?

Bandwidth is a measurement that indicates the highest possible data transmission capacity of a wireless or wired communication channel within a network connection during a specific time frame.

Higher bandwidth means more data can be sent and received faster and with fewer errors.

We have discussed some of the basic networking interview questions with answers. Below we have covered some networking interview questions for experienced candidates.

Advanced Networking Interview Questions and Answers

Here are some of the most asked advanced networking Interview Questions with their answers.

Q11 – What is Piggy Backing?

The network is the communication between two nodes that are interconnected by each other to share resources and data. But when we think about acknowledgment in between two-way communications there were several issues are raised, in that network needs to utilize a lot of bandwidth, and there again needed solutions for the same.

So, there is a thing which is Piggybacking, which is used when we want to transfer data in two-way communication, and there is no need to send special acknowledgment with the frame.

Q12 – What is the difference between TCP and UDP?

Below, we have presented the difference between TCP and UDP based on different factors.

FactorsTCP (Transmission Control Protocol)UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
ConnectionConnection-orientedConnectionless
ReliabilityReliableUnreliable
OrderingPreserve the order of packetsDoes not preserve the order of packets
Congestion ControlHave a congestion control mechanismDoes not have a congestion control mechanism
Header size20 bytes8 bytes
SpeedSlower than UDPFaster than TCP
ApplicationWeb browsing, email, and file transferStreaming media, online gaming, voice-over IP

Q13 – What is 10Base2?

10BaseT defines the data transfer rate, i.e., 10Mbps, where Base is the “Baseband” and T defines the cable type.

The IEEE 802.3a standard defines 10Base2, which includes data transmission rates of 10Mbps and a maximum segment length of 185 meters through the utilization of RG-58 coaxial cable. The 10Base2 protocol is characterized by a physical bus topology and employs BNC connectors that are equipped with 50-ohm terminators at both ends of the cable. It is necessary to ground one of the physical ends of every segment.

Q14 – What is Kerberos?

Kerberos is a network security protocol initially developed by MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) that is specifically utilized for authenticating service requests among multiple trusted hosts over an untrusted network, such as the Internet.

It works via various crucial elements. These are:

  • Client: The individual attempting to establish a connection with a particular service.
  • Server: The server is responsible for hosting the service.
  • Authentication Server (AS): Verifies the identity of the user. Upon successful client authentication, a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT) is generated as evidence of the client’s authenticity.
  • Ticket Granting Server (TGS): A server application that generates and delivers service tickets.
  • Key Distribution Center (KDC): A server that hosts AS, database, and TGS.

Q15 – What is NAT?

NAT stands for Network Address Translation. The process of NAT involves converting a specific range of private IP addresses to a single public IP address linked to a gateway device. The network address translation process allows a single device to act as an intermediary or agent between a private, localized network and a public network, such as the Internet.

The main focus of NAT is to conserve public IP addresses.

Q16 – What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous transmission?

Here are some differences between synchronous and asynchronous transmission –

Synchronous transmissionAsynchronous transmission
Data is sent in blocks or framesData is sent in bytes or characters
Requires synchronization between sender and receiverDoes not require synchronization between the sender and receiver
Fast and efficient for large amounts of dataSlow and economical for small amounts of data
Uses timing signals to coordinate data transferUses start and stop bits to indicate data boundaries
Examples: Telephonic conversations, video conferencing, online gamingExamples: Email, file transfer, online forms

Q17 – What is ICMP?

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is designed for reporting errors and information related to network connectivity issues to the origin of the failed transmission. It is primarily utilized by network administrators to diagnose and resolve issues related to Internet connectivity.

The ICMP protocol operates by generating and transmitting messages to the originating IP address, signaling the inability to access an Internet gateway for the purpose of delivering packets. The process involves the transmission of datagrams that comprise an IP header, which encapsulates the ICMP data.

Error messages such as:

  • Destination unreachable
  • Source quench message 
  • Redirection message
  • Time exceeded message
  • Parameter problem

Q18 – What is SNMP?

SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP is a network protocol that allows data collection, organization, and transmission among network devices. SNMP is a prevalent tool in network management, utilized to configure various network devices such as hubs, servers, routers, printers, and switches.

Critical components of SNMP are:

  • Management Information Base (MIB)
  • SNMP Manager
  • SNMP Agent
  • Managed device

These are all the important networking interview questions and answers for both fresher and experienced candidates.

Conclusion

In this blog, we have covered some of the basic networking interview questions you may encounter. Whether you are applying for a network engineer or any other role, these questions will help you demonstrate your knowledge and skills in computer networks. We hope that this blog has given you some insights into the networking interview questions that you can expect in your interviews.

Remember to prepare well, practice your answers, and be confident. Good luck with your networking career!

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